Notes

The glacier landform system

Glacial Erosion Processes There are two types of glacial erosion: Abrasion Occurs when rocks and stones become embedded in the base and sides of the glacier. These are then rubbed against the bedrock (at the bottom of the glacier) and rock faces (at the sides of the...

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Present and past Pleistocene distribution of ice cover

The Cryosphere • Consists of ice sheets and glaciers, combined with sea ice • Parts of Earth’s crust and atmosphere subject to temperatures below 0 degrees C for at least part of the year Ice Coverage • Ice cover at Pleistocene maximum was more than 3X greater than...

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Periglacial processes produce distinctive landscapes

Periglacial Environments: a cold climate, typically near glacial regions. The periglacial environment is a cold climate, often marginal to (next to) the glacial environment, and is subject to intense cycles of freezing and thawing Permafrost Environments: where the...

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Responses to Rising Demand

Managing water supplies will require action at a variety of levels. Likely actions include: Hard engineering projects to increase water storage and transfer. Restoration of lost water supplies. Water conservation in urban areas, such as rainwater harvesting and water...

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Water Technology

case study: china’s south north transfer project Project began in 2003 and involves building 3 canals to run across the eastern, middle and western parts of China and link the country’s 4 main rivers.       Benefits Costs §  Transfer 44.8 billion m3 per...

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Water Geopolitics

Often when countries compete for water resources international agreements and treaties have to be drawn up on how best to manage shared water supplies. As water resources become more significant, new treaties have to be negotiated using water diplomacy. Unfortunately,...

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Trends in Water Demand

By 2025, water withdrawal is projected to reach 5,235km3 per year, which is to impact on food production, human welfare and the environmental. Any predictions are tentative as they involve uncertain factors such as climate change. three alternative futures Scenario...

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Water Supply Problems

Secure water supplies are needed to support irrigation and food production, manufacturing and energy generation. However, the use of water resources can lead to various problems. E.g. the depletion of underground aquifers and salinization of the soil. case study: the...

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Water Conflicts

Water conflicts occur when the demand for water overtakes the supply and several stakeholders wish to use the same resource. Conflict is more likely where developing countries are involved as water is vital to feed their growing populations and promote industrial...

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Human Impacts on Water Availability

Human activity can have a negative effect on the water environment: Sewage disposal in developing countries is expected to cause 135 million deaths by 2020. In the UK we add 1,400 million litres of sewage to our rivers daily although most of it has been treated...

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Access to Water

Water insecurity: not having access to sufficient, safe water. There are 2.3 billion people without access to clean water, many live in 20 or so developing countries classified as ‘water scarce’. Problems of water insecurity are related to: Availability – having a...

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The Water Poverty Index

Established in 2002 and uses 5 parameters: Resources – the quantity of surface and groundwater per person, and its Access – the time and distance involved in obtaining sufficient and safe Capacity – how well the community manages its Use – how economically water is...

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Extrusive Landforms

Geysers A geyser is a rare kind of hot spring that is under pressure and when it erupts it sends jets of water and steam into the air. They are a tube-like hole in the ground that runs deep into the crust in which they are filled with water. Water in the lower part of...

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Intrusive Landforms

Batholith:A Batholith is when magma forces its way into the crust but becomes trapped and solidifies into rock, it is a large mass of intrusive igneous rock believed to have solidified deep within the earth. When it cools it forms granite and this can be exposed due...

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Effects of a Volcanic Eruption

Primary Effects Lava flows – although lava is the greatest perceived threat it rarely moves fast enough to kill people before they are evacuated. However, lava flows that cannot be diverted can cause damage. Pyroclastic flow – during and after the initial eruption gas...

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2010 Eruption of Eyjafjallajökul Impact

Social Around 10 million airline passengers affected and stranded abroad Residents in the volcano shadow were covered in ash and may have evacuated Sports games across the globe had to be cancelled or postponed 20 farms were destroyed by the flooding or ash The 150m...

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Physical Factors Affecting Water Supply

Drainage density: The density of rivers and streams in each area. Discharge: The rate of water flow in a river. Impermeable: Rock or soil which will not transmit water. River regime: The variation in annual river discharge. Aquifer: underground porous rock which will...

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Mount Etna 13th July 2001 Impact

Short Term On the morning of the 13th July 2001, magma pushed up through one of Etna’s vents. This caused the south side of the volcano to bulge and caused a series of earthquakes. Lava bubbled up to the surface in the crater of the volcano, and also at several...

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Mid-Atlantic Ridge

This submerged mountain range, which extends from the Arctic Ocean to beyond the southern tip of Africa, is but one segment of the global mid-ocean ridge system that encircles the Earth. The rate of spreading along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge averages about 2.5 centimetres...

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Nevado Del Ruiz Eruption 1985

Primary and Secondary Effects Lahars killed 70% of Armero’s population 45km away. Lahars were as much as 40m thick and travelled at 50km per hour. Most killed by suffocation as lahars up to 8m buried them. Lahars killed 1,800 people in Chinchina. 3400 ha of...

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Palaeomagnetic Evidence

A theoretical model of the formation of magnetic striping. New oceanic crust forming continuously at the crest of the mid-ocean ridge cools and becomes increasingly older as it moves away from the ridge crest with seafloor spreading. Early in the 20th century,...

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Haiti 2010 Earthquake (7.6 on Richter Scale)

316,000 people were killed, and 1 million people were made homeless. 300,000 people injured. 3 million people were affected by the earthquake. 250,000 homes and 30,000 other buildings, including the president’s palace and 60% of government buildings were either...

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Ocean / Continental Divergence

Oceanic crust is denser than continental crust, when plates collide the oceanic crust is subducted into the upper mantle, asthenosphere. Subduction creates several features characteristic of destructive margins. As the ocean crust descends, friction with the overlying...

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Northridge USA 1994 (6.7 on Richter scale)

Effects Buildings collapsed they were built on a blind thrust fault, so land buckled. 57 people died. Infrastructure ruined, extensive damage to parking structures/freeway overpasses. Most damage occurred in multi-story frame blocks. Numerous fires due to broken gas...

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Oceanic / Oceanic Convergence

Where two pieces of oceanic crust on different plates collide, one is subducted beneath the other. The crust that is subducted may be marginally denser of the two plates or is the one which is moving more quickly. These form characteristically curving lines of new...

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Tsunami

A tsunami is a giant sea wave caused by the large-scale displacement of water. Tsunamis are triggered by four events: Earthquake, landslide, volcanic eruptions (Krakatau 1883) and meteorites.   In all four cases the tsunami is triggered by the displacement of...

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Continental / Continental Collision

Two continental crusts collide and as neither can sink, they are forced up into Fold Mountains. The Indian plate collided with the Eurasian plate forming the Himalayas. The Himalayas are constantly changing, because these highly folded and faulted regions do not...

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Water Sources

Aquifer: underground porous rock which will hold groundwater and let it through. Ground water: all water found under the surface of the ground which is not chemically combined with any minerals present, but not including underground streams. Irrigation: the supply of...

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Constructive Margins

Oceanic ridges form the longest continuous uplifted feature on the surface of the Earth, having a total combined length of over 60,000km. Where two plates pull apart there is a weaker zone in the crust and increase in heat near the surface. The hotter, expanded crust...

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Fresh Water Supply is a Finite Resource

World’s oceans hold approx. 1,386 million km3 of water. Accounts for 97.5% of global water source. Only 2.5% of store is available as fresh water. Almost 80% of freshwater is trapped in ice, snow, and permafrost. Remaining 20% of freshwater is groundwater. Only 1%...

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Conservative Margins

Conservative margins occur when two plates move parallel or nearly parallel to each other these margins are said to be conservative because neither plate is subducted nor there is no volcanic activity. The constant stick slip motion of the plates results in frequent...

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Water Stress

Water stress: Lack of reliable, cost effective water supplies in a region. Water stress occurs when demand for water exceeds the amount available during a certain period, or when poor quality restricts its use. Therefore, when a country’s water consumption is more...

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Deep Sea Trenches

The ocean trenches are narrow depressions in the sea. These trenches form the deepest points in the ocean and are the lowest points on earth. Ocean Trenches are formed at a place of plate boundary which is known as the subduction zone. It experiences frequent...

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Rift Valleys

Convection currents in the asthenosphere cause continental crust to dome upwards. The upward pressure causes the crust to crack leaving an unsupported middle section. The unsupported section collapses forming a rift valley with steep stacks. If the convection currents...

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Hotspots

The middle of the Pacific Ocean is the volcanic Hawaiian Islands that aren’t connected with any plate boundary normally associated with plate margins. The volcanoes are caused by a localised hotspot within the Pacific Plate. The concentrations of radioactive elements...

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Volcanoes

Volcano, an extrusive feature formed from the accumulation of erupting lava and/or volcanic ash. Volcanoes are found at both constructive and destructive margins and the distribution follows the pattern of the plate boundaries. Volcanoes at destructive margins erupt...

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The Environmental and Social Implications of the Rise of the BRICS

  Positive Negative Environmental ·         Increased profits could lead to research in greener technology ·         Pollution from manufacturing ·         Deforestation in Brazil due to cattle ranching demand in western markets and China ·         Rural to urban...

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Winners vs. Losers

Africa Cannot experience growth without political stability which contributes to 2% of global trade (2007). Only trade is oil and minerals extracting, not manufacturing. Africa needs trade to allow them to own their own resources and trade equally. 7% growth vital to...

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Tectonic Processes and Hazards

Geomorphology– the study of landforms of the earth’s surface Plate tectonics– a theory explaining the structure of the earth’s crust and many associated phenomena as resulting from the interaction of the rigid lithosphere. Geomorphological hazard– an event causing...

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Emerging Superpowers

Past Superpowers Existing Superpowers Emerging Superpowers Russia/ USSR British Empire USA Roman Empire USA- hegemon (ruling state) Germany EU BRICS South Korea Mexico United Arab Emirates     Measures of Power Oil rich, manufacturing base, IT services,...

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Forces Indirectly Controlling Peripheral Areas like Ghana

Commodity Traders ·         Commodity traders in London and New York decide the price of cocoa and buy for large companies like Cadbury’s ·         Buyers trade in future markets for best price ·         Other countries also produce cocoa, so buyers will go to the...

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Superpowers Role in International Decision-Making

Global economic and political power is controlled by a small number of players in the form of inter-governmental organizations (IGOs).   UN - Political Prevents war and decides on international disputes and developed wide range of specialist agencies.   NATO -...

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Theories Explaining Growth of Superpowers

Modernisation Theory A theory proposed to explain the dominance of the British Empire and the USA according to their history of industrial modernization. It relates to five different stages of economic development. Assumes all countries follow the same development...

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How is Regeneration Managed?

The Role of UK Government Policies By investing in infrastructure, such as high-speed rails and airport developments, UK governments can maintain growth and improve accessibility to regenerate regions. It is often the role of national governments to facilitate...

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How Successful is Regeneration?

Measuring Success The success of economic regeneration can be assessed using measures of: Income – Poverty.   Employment Different areas can then be compared by looking at the variations within each measure. This will help understand which regeneration project...

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Superpowers

What is a Super Power? Superpowers are states or organisations with a dominant position in the international system. They can influence events in their own interests and project power on a worldwide scale to protect their interests.   Attributes of a Superpower...

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How Did USA and USSR Become Superpowers?

USSR Industrial strength, 2nd largest economy, military strength and harsh authoritarian regime to increase economic production.   USA World’s largest economy and had resources such as steel production, oil fields, coalfields, grain and arable areas and east west...

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What Legacies Did Communism Leave When USSR Broke Down?

The Collapse of the USSR (1991) They used a command style of government through the idea of communism. This was because in 1987 there was the development of perestroika and glasnost. PERESTROIKA -this is relaxed economic controls allowing businesses to sell their...

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Why do Human Rights Vary from Place to Place?

International Laws and Agreements The United Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a framework for foreign policies to explain economic and military intervention but not all states have signed the Declaration. It states the basic rights and fundamental freedoms to...

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Russia as a Super Power Again?

Significant reserves of oil and gas is adding to global power. Developed export partnerships to the east and west. Russia depends on Europe buying 80% of oil exports, but USA is a keen buyer and China’s demand for oil is growing. Power explained when in 2006 Russia...

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Ukraine

·         Why is there conflict between Russia and Ukraine? Ukraine aims for a pro-European and anti-Russian nation with a government that is focused on membership with NATO and EU. In the USSR, countries received cheap gas but because the USSR is now broken up and so...

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International Organisations

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) The focus of the IMF is to stabilise currencies and it was first brought about following the economic crisis of the Depression and World War II. Initially, the wealthiest countries created a fund that could be used to loan money...

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Impacts of Globalisation on International Migration

Globalisation and Migration Globalisation has led to extensive movements of capital, goods and people which has impacted migrations rates and traditional definitions of sovereignty. International migration changes the ethnic composition of populations which, although...

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India

Large, youthful population with the possibility to grow. World class industry (quaternary) - IT. Poor infrastructure.   The Impacts on the Old Cores Ageing populations are an issue in the EU, Japan, Russia and China. In contrast, USA, Brazil and India have much more...

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Superpower Futures

The Rise of BRIC’s BRICs -Brazil, Russia, India and China. They are all emerging superpowers, and some argue that China is already a superpower. The economic growth includes the benefits of reducing the number of people living in poverty, an increase in the size of...

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How and Why Do Places Vary

Economics Changes to economies and societies occur due to local, national and global processes such as the movement of people, capital, information and resources. An abundance of these factors can make places become economically wealthy whilst other places are...

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Why Might Regeneration Be Needed?

Economic and Social Inequalities Successful regions, such as the San Francisco Bay area, have high rates of employment, inward migration being both internal and international and low levels of multiple deprivation. This, alongside high property prices and skills...

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Transportation is the Process of Eroded Material Being Moved

The energyprovided by waves, tides and currents transports eroded material. There are four transportational processes: Traction- very big rocks/boulders are rolled along the sea bed by the force of the water. Saltation- pebbles and gravel are bounced along the sea bed...

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Deposition is the Process of Dropping Eroded Material

Deposition- when material being transported is dropped on the coast. Marine deposition- when sediment carried by seawater is deposited. Aeolian deposition- when sediment carried by wind is deposited. Happens when the sediment loadexceeds the ability of the water or...

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Globalisation

Globalisation is the process by which businesses or other organisations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale. Another definition defines globalisation as the growing economic interdependence of countries worldwide through...

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Sub-Aerial Weathering Occurs Along the Coastline

Sub-aerial weatheringthe gradual break down of rock by agents such as ice, salt, plant roots and acids. Weathering weakens cliffs and makes them more vulnerable to   Salt Weathering Caused by saline water. Enters pores/cracks at high tide. Tide goes out, rocks...

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How Globalisation Works

Those who make decisions to invest and manufacture overseas, and who help to determine consumer tastes and opinions, come mainly from North America, Europe, and East Asia, as well as oil-rich billionaire investors from Russia, Nigeria, and Saudi Arabia. China, India,...

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Some Coastal Landforms are Caused by Erosion

Cliffs and Wave-cut Platforms Cliffs- form as the sea erodes the land. They retreat due to the action of waves and weathering. Weathering and wave erosion cause a notch to form at the high-water mark - a cave is formed. Rock above becomes unstable and collapses....

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Ghana’s Cocoa Trade – Case Study

During colonial times, when it was ruled by Britain, Ghana was the world's largest producer of coca. The British government set the price that Ghanaian farmers would receive. Since independence in 1957, three factors now dictate global cocoa prices. Commodity traders....

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Some Coastal Landforms are Caused by Deposition

Beaches Form when constructive waves deposit sediment on the shore. Shingle beachesare steep and narrow; have large particles. Sand beachesare wide and flat; have small particles. Berms- ridges of sand and pebbles found at high tide marks. Runnels- grooves in the sand...

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Vietnam Calling – Case Study

Agreeing to WTO rules can help countries to forge new trade links. In 2014-15, the EU and ASEAN negotiated new trade deals. One of the largest took place in August 2015 with Vietnam. It removed all import duties and quotas on items traded between EU countries and...

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Sea Level Changes are Eustatic or Isostatic

Eustatic sea level change - caused by a change in the volume of water in the sea, or by a change in the shape of the ocean basins. Causes: Climate change. Tectonic movements. Isostatic sea level change - caused by vertical movements of the land relative to the sea....

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Cotton in Guatemala – Case Study

In the 1980s, 75% of Guatemala's cotton crop was exported. The income generated was used to buy pesticides, machines, and equipment for future crops. However, if Guatemala had processed its raw cotton into finished clothes, and then exported these instead, its export...

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Climate Change Causes Changes in Sea Level

Last century: global temperature has increased rapidly - global warming. Temperature increase has been very fast; changes in climate are a result of human activities. Activities increase the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Concentration increases,...

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Climate Change Has Impacts on Coastal Areas

Storms are likely to be more frequent and more intense. More frequent and more severe coastal flooding of low-lying areas. Submergence of low-lying islands. Changes in the coastline, islands are created. Contamination of water sources and farmland - salt water may...

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