Further planetary warming risks large-scale release of stored carbon, requiring responses from different players at different scales


Threats to Ocean Health
– 500 million people depend on fisheries for their food and income (fishing, tourism), 90% of which are in developing countries. Climate change is altering the distribution and productivity of species, food webs and biological processes.
– All countries eat fish and shellfish – the marine fishing industry is now globalised.
– Fish is a cultural choice in some countries (Japan).
– Fish is an absolute necessity in some countries, such as Ghana, Namibia and Senegal
– Fish provides 16% of the protein consumption for some 3 billion people and is the main source for around 1 billion people.
– Millions of small-scale fishing families depend on seafood for income.
– Coral bleaching can have significant impact on tourism (Great Barrier Reef, Australia).
– Loss of sea ice as it melts releases carbon.
– Rising sea levels will cause islands such as the Maldives to sink.
– The fishing stocks in come countries could decline causing prices to rise and diets to change.
– It could lead to political tensions over fishing waters eh between the UK and France.

Adaptation Strategies
Water conservation and management Smart irrigation, recycling sewage water for agriculture
Land use planning and flood risk management Land use zoning makes areas prone to flooding areas prone to lack of damage such as parks and fields.
Resilient agriculture systems Growing crops without ploughing and using fewer fertilisers
Solar radiation management A form of climate engineering that aims to reflect solar rays and so reduce global warming eg pumping sulphur aerosols into the upper atmosphere.

Mitigation Strategies
Carbon taxation Tax paid by fossil fuel users,
Energy efficiency Requiring residential and commercial buildings to reduce emissions by 25% and loans to renovate old energy consuming properties and subsidies to improve the efficiencies of manufacturing.
Afforestation Government used forest rehabilitation projects, preventing soil erosion and preventing sinks and stores from being removed.
Renewable switching Sweden leads the way – nuclear and hydroelectric
CCS Aims to reduce CO2 emissions by 90% by trapping it underground.