What was the social change as a result of the breakup of the USSR?

  • Brain drain because of emigration of young Russians looking for unemployment overseas.
  • Fall in birth rates as Russia’s population has declined steadily since 1995.
  • Decline in government revenue resulted in cuts in welfare provision. There was no longer free health care that occurred during the communism rule of the USSR.
  • Fall in male expectancy as 50% of working aged men die from alcoholic related illnesses. They have a weak, working population.
  • They had the highest AIDS endemic in Europe.
  • More freedom and relaxed controls and glasnost as well as perestroika selling privately and political freedom.
  • Freedoms lead to alcoholism and drug use causing fall in life expectancy to 59.



  • Contaminated land and polluted rivers following rapid industrialisation.
  • Russia had to ‘clean up’ to quality for loans from the IMF.



  • 80% decline in investment in Russia’s economy and old factories grind to a halt and production fall by 50%.
  • Mass unemployment with limited trade, private investment and personal wealth.