Threats to glaciated landscapes can be managed using a spectrum of approaches

The Spectrum of management

Population densities in an area will always affect the level of protection that can be afforded – Antarctica vs. Lake District for example.
Stakeholders (players) help conserve and protect landscapes (e.g. Friends of the Lake District) and include conservationists, NGOs (e.g. Greenpeace), scientists (e.g. BAS) local and regional government, and global organisations.
Players in Managing Cold Environments
• Local government.
• Local people.
• Intergovernmental organisations e.g. UN.
• NGO’s (Non-Governmental Organisations).
• Conservationists.
• National government.
Legislative Frameworks
Can be developed at a number of scales to aid the protection and the conservation of glacial environments. They must be closely monitored to be successful. Furthermore, mandatory legislation is more effective than frameworks and agreements which aren’t always legally enforced.
International Agreements
The Antarctic Treaty System
Established in 1959 by Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States and USSR. It now has 52 signatories (88% of global population) and it’s recognised as one of the world’s most successful international agreements.
The treaty has fourteen main articles that include:
• Stipulates that Antarctica should be used exclusively for peaceful purposes, military activities, such as the establishment of military bases or weapons testing, are specifically prohibited.
• Guarantees continued freedom to conduct scientific research.
• Promotes international scientific cooperation including the exchange of research plans and personnel, and requires that results of research be made freely available.
• Sets aside the potential for sovereignty disputes between Treaty parties by

providing that no activities will enhance or diminish previously asserted positions with respect to territorial claims.
• Provides that no new or enlarged claims can be made, and makes rules relating to jurisdiction.
• Prohibits nuclear explosions and the disposal of radioactive waste.

The Arctic Agreement
• Essentially an ocean surrounded by powerful countries.
• Less ice coverage and extensive areas of tundra.
• Valuable marine ecosystems.
• 4 million people live within the Arctic Circle.
• Climate change opening up shipping routes.
• 8 countries have a territorial claim.
• They have formed the Arctic Council (Ottawa Declaration, 1996).
• Could be strengthened through a treaty.
• Indigenous communities must be consulted on key issues.
• The Polar Code, 2003 – enables countries to enforce stricter environmental regulation.
• UN uses UN Convention for the Law of the Sea.
The Alpine Convention
It is an international treaty between the Alpine Countries (Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Slovenia and Switzerland) as well as the EU, for the sustainable development and protection of the Alps.
The Alps, with their biodiversity capital, water and wood reserves, are the natural, cultural, living and economic environment for nearly 14 million people and an attractive tourist destination for approximately 120 million guests every year.