Gender

Evolutionary Influences on Gender Development

Division of Labour: The role division between men and women may have evolved to enhance the groups reproductive success. If women hunted rather than played the domestic role, reproduction chances would be reduced. Women can also aid the avoidance of starvation by...

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Gender Dysphoria

Gender Dysphoria is also known as gender identity disorder. It is characterised by a mismatch between biological appearance and the way they feel about their gender. People with gender Dysphoria: Are unambiguously male or female in appearance but are uncomfortable...

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Kohlberg’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Basic Assumptions of Kohlberg’s (1966) Gender Constancy Theory. The way we think (cognitive development) changed as the result of changes in the brain due to biological maturation. Concepts of gender are only acquired when a child is cognitively ‘ready’ to acquire...

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Social Influences on Gender Roles

Social Learning Theory Bandura (1991) Indirect Reinforcement: children observe the behaviour of others and learn the consequences of the behaviour (vicarious reinforcement). This information is stored as an expectancy of future outcome. Learning such behaviours...

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Cultural Influences on Gender Roles

Cultural Similarities Cross-cultural studies of gender show that every society has some divison of labour and behaviour by gender. (Munroe and Munroe 1975). For example, food preparation and childcare is predominately a female role, girls are socialised more towards...

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Outline and Evaluate the Biosocial Approach

The biosocial approach refers to theories that compare both the biological and social explanations such as Money and Ehrhardt theory and social role theory. The biosocial approach to gender development emphasises that it is the interaction of both nature and nurture...

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Outline and Evaluate Research Into Gender Dysphoria.

Gender Dysphoria is a condition in which people are uncomfortable with the gender to which they are assigned. In the extreme, this can lead to transsexualism, a desire to change gender. Gender dysphoria is more common in boys, but occurs across both sexes. One...

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Outline and Evaluate Kolhberg’s Theory

Any cognitive developmental theory is based on the idea that children have to have reached a certain level of cognitive development before they can appreciate certain concepts, such as what it means to be a boy or girl, and the full implications of this. KOHLBERG...

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Discuss the Gender Schema Theory.

Gender schema theory MARTIN AND HALVERSON’S alternative to the cognitive-development approach proposed by Kohlberg. They argue that the process of acquiring gender-relevant information happens before gender consistency is achieved. They claim that basic gender...

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Discuss the Social Influences in Gender Roles

BANDURA renamed social learning theory as social cognitive theory emphasis the role of cognitive factors in learning. In this theory the source of information is social and what is learned is a cognition, something stored in the mind.  BANDURA proposed that gender...

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