culture and identity

Nuclear Families in society

In 1940s and 1950s the dominant perspective was functionalism Functionalist argue there was a fit between the needs of industrial societies like the UK and institution of the nuclear family such as American sociologists William Goode (1963) argued that as societies...

read more

Debates in Family Diversity

Up until the 1980s most approaches to family life focused on nuclear family Key debate = nuclear family was a largely beneficial institution – functionalist serve some sections of society more than others – Marxists Men – feminism In 1980s study was done called...

read more

Relationships between parents and children

Most western societies, children are considered undeveloped, immature, vulnerable and in need of special protection Many sociologists argued the idea of childhood as a separate phase of life when children should be separate from adults so very modern invention and not...

read more

Changing Sexual Identities

Homosexuality was deviant or abnormal UK was sexual activity between men was made illegal in the 19th century and punished 1960 it was cultural attitudes changed when it became decriminalised Equality act 2010 decriminalised it Gay marriage was made legal in 2014 Some...

read more

Nationality Identity

Def. The feeling of being a part of a larger community in the form of a nation and identifying with national symbols such as flags, institutions, brands, foods and rituals Formal legal category which derives from people belonging to a specific nation state Involves...

read more

Changing National Identity

Sardor (2002) Suggest that the world is in the middle of global identity crisis Britain is having lost its empire and feeling very small in a global world Unsure whether it should become more American or more European Englishness was based on historical traditions...

read more

Diverse Modern Families

Diversity of family and household types 50 years ago, the family was father, mother and biological approach so fathers are breadwinners and mothers leave paid work to be a housewife Stay married and are traditionally working class Maintain strong relationship with...

read more

What is Identity?

The Concept of Identity Identity or the self refers to how se see yourself Social identity = social expectations that society attaches to our status and which we attempt to live up too such as identity of a good student requires students work hard Social identity is...

read more

Reasons for family and household diversity

Marriage Traditionally in the UK it was monogamous and for life Increasingly UK society is moving towards a social trend People are more likely to establish a series of monogamous long-term relationship so minority in 2012 so most likely due to secularisation Most...

read more

Gender Identity

Def. Expectations society places on a man and female Sex Def. Biological differences between men and woman Significant effect on identity especially if living in a patriarchal society as feminist say its socially constructed such as females are seen and treated as...

read more

Changing Male Identities

Connell (1995) argued there are a range of masculine identity available today Hegemonic masculinity so traditional and most commonly seen industrial jobs so dominant, aggressive and breadwinner Subordinate masculinity as homosexual men so Stigmatised identity Seen as...

read more

Explanations for changing divorce rates

Change in the law In 1857 it was the only way to obtain a divorce was by a private act of parliament Expensive and complicated and required friends in parliament so available to a small number of wealthy people Over next 150 years, divorce became simpler, cheaper and...

read more

Changing Female Identity

Research shows girls no longer conform to the norms of feminine identity that dominate British culture 30 years ago Evidence suggests woman in 2017 are more likely to see themselves equal to men rather than subordinate Chamber came up with normative feminity which is...

read more

Demographic changes

Def. Study of population Population depends on factors such as fertility, morality rate and net migration and emigration Sociologists argue that demographic changes over the past 100 years have had a major influence on British family life Births and Fertility Rates...

read more

Social class identity

Def. a group who share similar economic and social situation Derives from the work we do Income, status and lifestyle come from it Less significant to some people today so argued that class is dead Lead to social class developing similar norms and values cultures and...

read more

Changes in age of marriage and childbearing

Age of Marriage In 1970 in England and Wales on average woman married at the age of 22.0 Men at 24.1 According to ONS in 2012 the average age at which men getting married is 30.8 and woman is 28.9 years Age has increased because of; More couples cohabitating Changing...

read more

Changing Class Identity

Pakuliski and Walters (1996) Social class is no longer important as there has been a shift from production of goods to consumption so defined by what we buy As results of people no longer identify with being working or middle class due to people no longer sharing...

read more

Ethnic Identity

People who share similar physical/biological cultural and religious differences from the majority Characteristics all affect who we are and how we see ourselves such as skin colour so common ancestral, social, cultural or national experience March and Keating It’s a...

read more

Changing ethnic identity

Hybridity Def. The combination/mixture of identities including culture, race and tradition Increasing forms of hybridity which because more complex and chosen Linked to globalisation and increasingly influences or the mass media so share a global culture such as...

read more

Changing Age Identity

Featherstone and Hepworth Media images of aging are changing and are less likely to be derogatory or condescending Suggest identity is increasingly fluid and less significant A source of negative stereotype as new identities suggested it has more positive images may...

read more

Disability Identity

Constructed by medical professionals or by mass media Biomedical model of health has dominant shaped by physical or mental impairment that unable to lead a normal life Equal Act 2010 disability is defined as having a physical or mental impairment that has a...

read more

Changing Disability identities

Signs that it is changing Recent sociological studies suggest they are more likely to resist those definitions of disability that stress dependence Adopting a more assertive politicised identity and campaign for equal rights as non-disabled people Murugami (2009)...

read more

Sexuality Identity

Def. Sexual orientation is a person sexual identity in relation to the gender to which they are attached Biological Sex Def. Whether someone is male or female Gender Identity Def. A person’s perception of having a gender which may or may not correspond with their...

read more

What is Culture?

Def. The beliefs, customs and way of life of a society of a group within society Made distinctive by norms and values Entire system of behaviour and beliefs of a group or society so shared norms, values and beliefs Sociologists Definition Williams (1983) it’s the way...

read more

Types of culture

Subculture Def. Minority social group that share values, norms, beliefs, practices, interest and problems that are unique to them Share some cultural aspects with mainstream society but also have their own – practical or alternative ideas and may experience hostility...

read more

What is Socialisation?

Def. Process by which an individual learns the norms and values or culture of a society Learn how to be members of society Primary Socialisation First and most important phrase Occurs in early childhood Main agent is family Language is most important thing we learn as...

read more