Mass Spectrometry

Mass Spectrometer: Sample is placed, vaporised and ionised to form positive ions. Ions are accelerated. Heavier ions move slowly and more difficult to deflect than lighter ions, so ions of each isotope separated. In vacuum so no interference with other molecules. •...

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Infrared Spectroscopy

Covalent Bonds: Covalent bonds can absorb infrared radiation, which makes the bonds vibratebonds bend or stretch more. Stretch and bend are two types of vibration. Bonds have energy normally and vibrate. • Wavenumber: Wavenumber is proportional to frequency and used...

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Combining Questions

Empirical and Molecular Formula: • Do elemental analysis by using percentage composition data to determine empirical formula and then molecular formula. • Sometimes volumetric analysis given, use Mr Moles to work out Mr. • If empirical formula and molecular formula...

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