Sub-Aerial Weathering Occurs Along the Coastline

  • Sub-aerial weatheringthe gradual break down of rock by agents such as ice, salt, plant roots and acids. Weathering weakens cliffs and makes them more vulnerable to


Salt Weathering

  • Caused by saline water.
  • Enters pores/cracks at high tide.
  • Tide goes out, rocks dry and water evaporates, forming salt crystals. As they form, they expand, exerting pressure on the rock causing pieces to break off.


Freeze-thaw Weathering

  • Occurs in areas where temperatures fluctuate above and below freezing.
  • Water enters the joints and crevices in rocks.
  • If the temperature drops below 0C, the water in the cracks freezes and expands.
  • Repetition weakens the rocks causing pieces to fall off.


Chemical Weathering

  • Breakdown of rock by changing its chemical composition.


Wetting and Drying

  • When clay gets wet, it expands, and the pressure caused by this breaks fragments of the rock.
  • Mass movement is when material moves down a slope:
  • Mass movement – the shifting of material downhill due to gravity.
  • Slides- material shifts in a straight line.
  • Slumps- material shifts with a rotation.
  • Rockfalls- material breaks up and falls.
  • Mudflows- material flows downslope.
  • Unconsolidatedrocks are prone to collapse as there’s little friction between particles to hold them together.
  • Heavy raincan saturate unconsolidated rock, further reducing friction and making it more likely to
  • Runoffcan erode fine particles and transport them downslope.