Revision Questions

AO1: Knowledge and Understanding
For each of these questions, you should first produce model answers, using your notes, textbooks and online sources (ensure that you refer to A Level standard sources).
Glaciated Landscapes and Change
EQ 1: How has climate change influenced the formation of glaciated landscapes over time?
1. Define the following terms:
a. Glacier
b. Ice Cap
c. Ice Sheet
d. Quarternary Period
e. Pleistocene Epoch
f. Holocene Epoch
2. Characterise the Pleistocene Epoch.
3. What is the difference between a glacial and interglacial?
4. Explain how Ice cores and ocean cores provide evidence of climatic change.
5. Explain Milankovich’s theory.

6. Briefly explain how the following factors can cause the climate to change:
a. Solar Energy
b. Ocean Circulation
c. Meteorites
d. Plate Tectonics
e. Volcanic Activity
f. Composition of the atmosphere
7. What is the difference between a positive and negative feedback to climate change?
8. What is meant by:
a. Albedo
b. Calving
9. Explain what happened during the Loch Lomond Stadial and the Little Ice Age.
10. What is the ‘cryosphere’?
11. Describe the maximum extent of ice during the last glacial period.
12. Describe the present day extent of glacier ice.
13. Describe a periglacial environment.
14. What is the difference between continuous permafrost, discontinuous permafrost and sporadic permafrost?
15. What is the ‘active layer’?
16. Describe and explain the following periglacial processes:
a. Nivation
b. Frost Heave
c. Freeze-Thaw Weathering
d. Solifluction
e. High Winds and Meltwater Erosion

17. Describe and explain the formation of:
a. Ice Wedges and Patterned Ground Formations
b. Pingos
c. Loess Deposits
18. What is meant by a ‘relict’ landscape?
EQ 2: What processes operate within glacier systems?


19. Draw an annotated diagram of the glacier system.
20. Define and exemplify both ablation and accumulation.
21. Explain glacier mass balance.
22. How do crevasses form?
23. Explain what is meant by ‘pressure melting point’.
24. What factors affect the speed that glaciers move?
25. Explain the difference between:
a. Extensional, Compressional, Rotational Flow
b. Basal Flow and Internal Deformation (Flow)
26. Explain the process of regelation creep.
27. Explain the difference between plucking and abrasion.
28. What is the difference between supraglacial, englacial and subglacial transportation?
29. In what three ways do glaciers deposit material?
30. Explain the process of ‘entrainment’.
31. What is the difference between the location of marginal, proglacial and periglacial regions?
32. Draw a table like the one below and complete it by naming all the different erosional and depositional landforms studied:

33. Explain the difference between ‘glacial drift’, ‘till’ and ‘fluvioglacial deposits

EQ 3: How do glacial processes contribute to the formation of glacial landforms and landscapes?
34. With the use of annotated diagrams, explain the formation of a cirque glacier. You should draw:
a. Pre-glacial (nivation hollow etc.)
b. Under glacial conditions
c. Post-glacial landform
35. Explain how cirques are formed.
36. Explain the difference between an arête and a pyramidal peak.
37. Describe and explain how the following valley glacier landforms are created:
a. Glacial Trough
b. Hanging Valley
c. Ribbon Lake
d. Truncated Spur
e. Misfit Stream
38. Explain how the following landforms are created:
a. Roches Moutonnées
b. Knock and Lochan
c. Crag and Tail
39. Explain the difference between ‘lodgement’ and ‘ablation’.
40. Describe the difference types of moraines deposits that can be found.
41. Draw a labelled diagram of a drumlin.
42. What is an ‘erratic’.
43. How can the underlying geology affect erosional processes and resulting landforms?
44. Explain how depositional landscapes can help scientist reconstruct previous glacial periods.
45. What are ‘varves’?

46. Explain the following processes:
a. Supraglacial Hydrology
b. Englacial Hydrology
c. Subglacial Hydrology
47. Explain how fluvioglacial deposits differ from glacial deposits.
48. Draw a diagram to illustrate the answer to the previous question.

49. What is the difference between an ‘ice-contact feature’ and a ‘proglacial feature’?
50. Describe and explain how the following ice-contact landforms are created:
a. Eskers
b. Kames and Kame Terraces
51. Describe and explain how the following proglacial landforms are created:
a. Sandurs
b. Proglacial Lakes
c. Meltwater Channels
d. Kettle Holes
EQ 4: How are glaciated landscapes used and managed today?
52. Copy and complete a large version of the table below to explain the value that cold environments have:

53. Describe the Continuum of Wilderness (start with ‘continuum of human management’ on the model and develop from there).
54. Explain the following natural threats to cold environments:
a. Avalanches
b. Glacial Outbursts
c. Lahars
55. Explain how climate change is predicted to affect all cold environments.

56. How are humans responsible for soil erosion?
57. Explain the impacts to the hydrological cycle of shrinking glaciers in a region.
58. Explain and exemplify how the following players contribute to the management of glacial environments:
a. Local Government
b. National Government
c. Conservationists
d. NGOs
e. International Organisations
f. Local People
59. Explain each stage of the ‘continuum of management’.
60. Exemplify each stage of the ‘continuum of management’.
61. Explain how international agreement can be adopted to manage cold environments.