Obesity Indicators

• Body mass index (BMI): conventionally used method of classifying body weight relative to a person’s height.
• To calculate BMI:
o Body mass (Kg)/ height (meters) squared
• Evidence suggests that waist-to-hip ratio is a better measure of obesity than BMI.
o And it also shows a significant association with risk of heart attack.
• There is a continuous correlation between waist-to-hip ratio and heart attack.
• Waist –to-hip ratio gives a better indication of who is at risk of a heart attack, even in people with low BMIs of <20
• Waist-to-hip ratio is calculated by: waist circumference/hip circumference
o The waist is measured unclothed at the narrowest point between the rib margin and the top of the hip bone
o The hip circumference is measured in light clothing at the widest point around the buttocks
• Ideally men should not have a wait-to-hip ration over 0.90 and women should not be greater than 0.85
• A diet high in fat and an inactive lifestyle are major contributing factors to the development of obesity
• Greater inactivity means that obesity and associated conditions are on the increase
• A high-fat diet will not always result in weight gain if combined with high levels of physical activity
• Hemoglobin caries carbon monoxide from smoke instead of oxygen= reduces supply of oxygen to the cells
• Any narrowing arteries due to atherosclerosis will reduce blood flow through the arteries in the heart and brain
o this increases heart rate as body reacts to provide enough oxygen for the cells
• smoking has been linked with a reduction in HDL cholesterol level
• chemicals from smoke can damage the lining of the arteries= atherosclerosis
• moderate exercise e.g. cycling, or walking helps prevent high BP and helps lower it
• exercise also raises HDL cholesterol without affecting LDL cholesterol levels
• it also reduces the chance of developing type II diabetes and helps in controlling the condition