Genetic Modification (Genetic Engineering)

– Vector: (a virus or plasmid) that transfers genetic material into a cell, or from one
bacterium to another.
– Recombinant DNA: Genetic material formed by recombination (by restriction
enzymes and ligase enzymes).
– When a virus or plasmid is inside a host cell, it may pick up DNA and carry it into
another host cell.
5.14 – Understand that large amounts of human insulin can be manufactured from
genetically modified bacteria that are grown in a fermenter.
– The human gene that codes for insulin production is taken.
– Plasmids (a vector) are isolated from a bacteria and are cut by restriction enzymes.
– The gene is cut by the same restriction enzyme and is inserted into the plasmid by
ligase enzymes to create a recombinant plasmid.
– The recombinant plasmid is inserted into a bacteria cell and the bacteria is allowed to
5.15 – Evaluate the potential for using genetically modified plants to improve food
production (illustrated by plants with improved resistance to pests).
– Genetically modified plants are plants with enhanced characteristics.
– More nutritional value.
– More resistance to pesticides / herbicides / disease.
– Observed individual downsides of GM crops include sterility, infant mortality, allergies,
stunted growth.
5.16 – Understand that the term ‘transgenic’ means the transfer of genetic material
from one species to a different species.
– Transgenic: The transfer of genetic material from one species to a different species