1 Alpha particles α-particles Helium nucleus Stopped by paper Highest ionization potential 2 Beta-particles β-particles Fast moving electrons Stopped by aluminum Less ionization potential 3 Gamma-particles γ-rays Electromagnetic radiation Only stopped by thick a sheet...

# Formulae and Equations

## Electricity and magnetism

1 Ferrous Materials Attracted by magnet and can be magnetized Eg. iron, steel, nickel and cobalt 2 Non-ferrous materials Not attracted by magnet and cannot be magnetized copper, silver, aluminum, wood, glass 3 Electric field intensity force exerted by the field on...

## Waves, light and sound

1 Wave equation 1 v is the speed of wave in m/s f is the frequency in Hz λ is the wavelength in meters 2 Wave equation 2 T is the time period of wave in seconds 3 Movement of the particles of the medium Longitudinal waves=> back and forth in the direction of the...

## Thermal Physics:

1 Pressure and volume relationship (Boyle’s law) p1 and p2 are the two pressures in Pa and V1 and V2 are the two volumes in m3 2 Thermal Expansion (Linear) 3 Thermal Expansion (Cubical) 4...

## General Physics:

1 For constant motion: ‘v’ is the velocity in m/s, ‘s’ is the distance or displacement in meters and ‘t’ is the time in seconds 2 For acceleration ‘a’ u is the initial velocity, v is the final velocity and t is the time. 3 Graph Area...