The Relationship between Ownership and Control

Mass Media Defined
Technology | Institutions and organisations | Products of Institutions
Traditional: Media communicates uniform message to large homogenous audiences.
New: Screen based digital text – integration of images, text and sound.
The Power of the Media
Key Statistics: 96% homes have digital TV | 76% broadband | 92% mobile phone| 47% internet via phone.
Information Access: Internet provided more information in last 30 years than last 5000 years.
Saturation: Media saturated society – only source of info. – constructs views and identity.
Formal Controls on the Media
The Law: Principle legal Limits – Obscene publications act | Racial equality act.
OFCOM: Office of Communications | Protect public from offence and unfair representation.
The BBC: State funded body | Governed by BBC trust – members chosen by the government – license fee.
How Governments Influence and Control Media Output
Leaks and ‘Off the Record’ briefings: Informal meetings with journalists – gov. manage what’s reported.
Government Spin Doctors: ‘Bury bad news’ – sensationalise | manipulate media provide favourable slant.
Electronic Surveillance: Gov. monitor websites and communication – limits freedom.
_____________________________________________________________________________________Ownership of Mass Media
Lords of the Global Village – Bagdikian Concentration | 86% of national papers controlled by just 4 companies e.g. Daily Mail and General Trust/News international.
Features of Media Ownership
Vertical Integration: Companies own all stages in production.
Horizontal Integration: Own diff. platforms.
Conglomeration: Companies have extra products e.g. virgin train lines/BT (global cong. – operate in global markets.)
Global Integration: Global empires with international consumers and interest.
Synergy: Sell subsidiary products. E.g. merchandise.
Technological Convergence: Product on multiple platforms.

Mass Media and Ideology
Morely called the ‘preferred ideology’ that the ideology mass producers prefer audiences to infer.
Dominant Ideology:
Marxists – ideology which justifies class inequality
Ideological State Apparatus: Dom. Id. spread through social agencies e.g. education or – Media.

False Conscious: Hides exploitation | prevents a person perceiving the true nature of social/economic situation – the media create a ‘climate of conformity’ – Milliband | People believe they benefit from societies corrupt structure.