Explanations of corporate

Strain theory if a company cannot achieve its goal of maximising profits through legitimate means, it will turn to illegitimate means instead. Clinard and Yeager found companies law violations increase as their profit declined.

Differential association Sutherland sees crime as socially learned behaviour. If a company’s deviant subculture justifies committing crime, employees will be socialised into criminality.

Labelling theory An act counts as a crime only if its been labelled. Companies often have the power to avoid labelling by hiring lawyers. The inability of enforcement agencies to investigate effectively also reduces the number of offences officially labelled.

Marxism sees CC as resulting from the normal functioning of capitalism. Because capitalisms goal is to maximise profits it inevitably causes harm to employees and consumers. Corporations comply with the law only if it is enforced strictly. However, this doesn’t explain crime committed by non-profit marketing organisations like the state.

TOPIC 4 Realist theories of crime