Psychopathology

Ocd

- OCD is classed as an anxiety disorder - The disorder has two main components: obsessions and compulsions - Obsessions are persistent thoughts - Compulsions are repetitive behaviours BEHAVIOURAL COMPULSIONS - Sufferers of OCD feel compelled to repeat a behaviour. - A...

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Behavioural Approach: Explaining Phobias

- The behavioural approach emphasises the role of learning in the acquisition of behaviour. THE TWO-PROCESS MODEL - In 1960 Hobart Mowrer proposed the two-process model based on the behavioural approach to phobias. - This starts with that phobias are acquired (learned...

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Behavioural Approach: Treating Phobias

SYSTEMATIC DESENSITISATION - This is a behavioural therapy designed to gradually reduce phobic anxiety through the principle of classical conditioning. - If the sufferer can learn to relax in the presence of the phobic stimulus they will be cured. - Essentially a new...

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Cognitive Approach: Explaining Depression

BECK’S COGNITIVE THEORY OF DEPRESSION - In 1967 American Psychiatrist Aaron Beck suggested a cognitive approach to explaining why some people are more vulnerable to depression than others. - The way people think effects this the most FAULTY INFORMATION PROCESSING -...

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Cognitive Approach: Treating Depression

COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THEORY - CBT is the most commonly used psychological treatment for depression and a range of other mental health problems. - CBT begins with an assessment in which the patient and the cognitive behaviour therapist work together to clarify the...

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Biological Approach: Explaining Ocd

GENETIC EXPLANATIONS - OCD is a condition that largely understood as biological in nature. - Genes are involved in individual vulnerability to OCD. - Lewis (1936) observed that of his OCD patients 37% had parents with OCD and 21% had siblings with OCD. - This suggests...

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Biological Approach: Treating Ocd

DRUG THERAPY - Drug therapy for disorders aims to increase or decrease levels of neurotransmitters in the brain or to increase/decreases their activity. SSRIs - The standard medical treatment used to tackle the symptoms of OCD involves a particular type of...

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Definitions of Abnormality

STATISTICAL INFREQUENCY - Occurs when an individual has a less common characteristic. - This model argues that behaviours that are statistically rare should be seen as abnormal. - What is regarded as statistically rare depends on normal distribution; most people will...

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Phobias

- Phobias are categorised by excessive fear and anxiety triggered by an object, place or situation - Instance of irrational fear that produce avoidance - This interferes with everyday life BEHAVIOURAL PANIC - A phobic person may panic is response to the presence of...

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Depression

 - Depression is classified as a mood disorder where an individual feels sad and/or lacks interest in their usual activities BEHAVIOURAL ACTIVITY LEVELS - Typically sufferers of depression have reduced levels of activity, making them lethargic. - Sufferers tend to...

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