Notes

Anger Management

Raymond Novaco (1975) Suggests cognitive factors trigger emotional arousal which leads to aggressive acts. In behaviourist terms becoming angry is reinforced by the individuals feeling of control in that situation. As such, anger management programmes are a form of...

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Restorative Justice

Switch emphasis from needs of the state (crime against the state) to needs of the individual victims; victims encouraged to take an active role in process. John Braithwaite (2004) – ‘crime hurts, justice should heal’; collaboration between the offender and the victim...

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Dealing with Offending Behaviour

Custodial Sentencing: Convicted offender spends time in prison or another closed institution such as a young offender’s institute or psychiatric hospital 4 Aims: Deterrence – puts of offender or society at large from offending. General deterrence – send out broad...

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Behaviour Modification

Based on the behaviourist approach – all human behaviour is learned, and it should be possible to encourage the unlearning of behaviour by using the same principles. Behaviour modification involves reinforcing obedience and punishing disobedience. Made possible in...

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Psychological Explanations: Psychodynamic

Inadequate Superego Theory Tripartite structure of personality – id, ego, superego Superego formed at the end of the phallic stage when children resolve the Oedipus/Electra complex Superego – morality principle, punishes ego through guilt or rewards with pride...

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Psychological Explanations: Cognitive

Levels of Moral Reasoning: Kohlberg applied concept of moral reasoning to criminal behaviour. People’s judgements of right and wrong can be shown in a stage theory of moral development – the higher the stage, the more sophisticated the reasoning. Based theory off...

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Psychological Explanations: Differential Association Theory

Scientific basis: Edwin Sunderland said ‘the conditions which are said to cause the crime should be present when crime is present, and absent when crime is absent’ Offending behaviour may be acquired through learning processes Crime as learned behaviour:             ...

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Biological Explanations: Neural

Evidence suggests neural difference in brains of criminals and non-criminals, most evidence in this area is found in individuals diagnosed with APD (formerly known as psychopathy). This is in many convicted criminals and is associated with reduced emotional responses,...

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Evaluation of Genetic and Neural

  Support for Diathesis-Stress Model – Sarnoff Mednick et al (1984) conducted study of 13,000 Danish adoptees. Researchers defined criminal behaviour as at least 1 court conviction, checked against Danish police records for each adoptee. If neither biological nor...

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Psychological Explanations: Eysenck’s Personality Theory

General personality theory:                                                                                              Hans Eysenck (1947) important figure in personality and intelligence during 50’s and 60’s, proposed that behaviour could be represented along 2...

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Biological Explanations: Genetics

Twin studies                                                                                                                                                                                        Importance of genes is illustrated by twin studies                     ...

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Biological Explanations: Atavistic Form

Historical approach to offending: Suggested by Cesare Lombroso (1876) Offenders seen as lacking evolutionary development, savage and untamed nature meant they would find it impossible to adjust to civilised society and inevitably turn to crime. Lombroso saw criminal...

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Offender Profiling

Investigative tool employed by police, narrows down field of enquiry and suspects. Methods vary but usually involve careful scrutiny of crime scene and analysis of the evidence in order to generate hypotheses about the probable characteristics of the offender. The Top...

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Defining and Measuring Crime

Problems in defining crime: Cultural – one culture’s crime may not be another, eg: in the UK, bigamy is a crime, yet in some cultures polygamy is practised Historical – what was a crime in the past may not be a crime today, or vice versa, eg: homosexuality was a...

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Contemporary Research

Sex differences in jealousy: the recall of cues to sexual and emotional infidelity in personally more and less threatening context conditions – Achim Schutzwohl and Stephanie Koch (2004) Aim –  To test Buss’s (1992) belief that males fear sexual infidelity more, while...

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Self-disclosure

Self- disclosure = the revealing of personal information about oneself to another The concept believes we reveal more personal information to people we like and in turn we like people who reveal more personal information about themselves to us. Self-disclosure...

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Physical Attractiveness

Physical attractiveness is viewed by society as one of the most important factors of relationship formation, but is this view supported by research? Physical attractiveness is an immediate and accessible way for potential partners to rate each other. Individuals are...

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The Matching Hypothesis

Matching Hypothesis- the idea that individuals are attracted to people of similar perceived attractiveness The matching hypothesis (Walster et al., 1966) suggests that people realise at a young age that not everybody can form relationships with the most attractive...

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Filter Theory

Kerckhoff & David (1962) Filter theory believes that choice of partners is affected by factors limiting the availability of those possible to select from. There is a series of filters that serves to ‘thin down the field’ to those available. Similarity of social...

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Social Exchange Theory

Social Exchange theory – an economic explanation of relationship maintenance based on maximizing profits and minimizing costs. In any relationship both partners are continually giving and receiving items of value to and from each other and as people are fundamentally...

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Equity Theory

Equity theory sees relationship maintenance occurring through balance and stability  Equity in relationship theory does not mean equality; instead it believes individuals are motivated to achieve fairness in relationships and to feel dissatisfied with inequity...

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Rusbult’s Investment Model of Commitment

Rusbult’s model sees factors of satisfaction level, quality of alternatives and investment as determining relationship commitment Rusbult’s theory attempts to identify the determinants of relationship commitment and is comprised of three factors positively linked with...

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Ducks Phase Model of Relationship Breakdown

Duck (2001) proposed three general reasons for why relationships break up: Pre-existing doom – incompatibility and failure are fairly much guaranteed from the start of the relationship Mechanical failure- two compatible, well meaning people grow apart and find that...

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Study Guide – Theories of Romantic Relationships

Summarize the main points that describe social exchange theory using research evidence (SET) The theory sees people as perceiving their feelings for others in terms of profit (the rewards obtained from relationships minus the costs). The greater the rewards and the...

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Male Strategies

Several male strategies have evolved seeking to maximise opportunities for mating success, including the following: Courtship Rituals – allow males to display genetic potential, through characteristics and resource abilities. Size – males evolved to be bigger,...

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Female Strategies

Several female strategies have evolved that maximise opportunities for mating success, including; Sexy Sons Hypothesis- females select attractive males as they will produce sons with the same attractive features, increasing their sons’ and thus their own reproductive...

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The Evolutionary Explanation for Partner Preferences

Charles Darwin (1809-1882) - within each animal species, including humans, there is variation, making people not identical. Part of the variation comes from differences in individuals genes, 50% inherited from each parent, but genes (strands of DNA) can also undergo...

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Split-brain Research and Hemispheric Lateralisation

Split brain research Sperry and Gazzaniga were the first to investigate hemispheric lateralisation with the use of split-brain patients Split-brain patients are individuals who have undergone surgical procedure where the corpus callosum (which connects the 2...

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Circadian Rhythm

One biological rhythm is the 24-hour circadian rhythm (often known as the ‘body clock’), which is reset by levels of light. The sleep-wake cycle is an example of a circadian rhythm, which dictates when humans and animals should be asleep and awake. Light provides the...

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Infradian and Ultradian

Infradian Rhythms- a type of biological rhythm with a frequency of less than one cycle in 24 hours- rhythms last longer than 24 hours (longest) SAD is an infradian rhythm Depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern SAD is an infradian rhythm called a circannual...

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Localisation of Function in the Brain

Brain is divided into 2 halves- left and right hemisphere Lateralisation: some physical and psychological functions are controlled by a particular hemisphere Generally, the left side of the body is controlled by the right hemisphere and the right the left Cerebral...

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Ways of Studying the Brain

fMRI- Functional magnetic resonance imaging detects changes in blood oxygenation and flow that occur due to neural activity in specific brain areas- when a brain area is more active it consumes more oxygen and blood flow is directed to the active area (haemodynamic...

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Explain the Process of Synaptic Transmission

Synaptic transmission is the process where an electrical impulse (action potential) passes across the synaptic gap. Electrical impulses reach the presynaptic terminal, which triggers the release of neurotransmitters, which then cross the synapse from vesicles, it is...

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The Endocrine System

Works alongside the nervous system Controls vitas functions in the body through hormones Slower than NS Network of glands across the body that secrete chemical messages- hormones Instead of using nerves (sensory and motor neurones) it uses blood vessels to transmit...

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Fight or Flight

A stressor is perceived The hypothalamus activates the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system ANS changes from its normal resting state to the physiologically aroused, sympathetic state Adrenal medulla (part of the adrenal gland) releases adrenaline into...

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Brain Plasticity

The brain is ‘plastic’- synaptic connections are formed and pruned Synaptic pruning During infancy brain experiences rapid growth- 15,000 age 2-3 (Gopnik et al) As we age rarely used connections are deleted and frequently used ones are strengthened- synaptic pruning-...

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Types and Functions of Neurones

  Transmit signals electrically and chemically Sensory Neurone Carry messages from the peripheral nervous system to the CNS- long dendrites, short axon Relay Neurones Connect sensory neurones to motor or other relay neurones, short dendrites and short axon Motor...

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Structure of a Neurone

Cell body Includes nucleus- genetic material of the cell Dendrites Branch-like structures, carry nerve impulses from neighbouring neurones towards the cell body Axon Carries electrical impulses away from the cell body, down the length of the neurone- covered in fatty...

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Theory of Planned Behaviour

AO1 Ajzen (1989) proposed TPB to explain the cognitive factors that led to a person to engage in behaviour. It is a cognitive explanation which states that, according to this definition, an individual’s decision to engage in a particular behaviour can be directly...

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Types of Intervention

BIOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS Drug substitution is a common treatment for addiction. Methadone is commonly used a drug substitute for a heroin addiction. Methadone is a synthetic drug widely used in the treatment of heroin addictions. It mimics the effects of Heroin but is...

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The Cognitive Model

The cognitive model suggests you become addicted to a behaviour or substance because of the way we think. I.e. people choose their behaviour as they have free will, based on their own beliefs, opinions, values, expectations, etc. These are often but not always,...

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Risk Factors for Addiction

Personality The concept of an “addictive personality” is appealing because it can explain why some people become addicted when others don’t, despite them both having the same experiences. It can also explain why some people become addicted to a range of things, such...

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Media Influences on Addictive Behaviour

AO1 There has been research into film representation of addiction. Sulkunen (2007) analysed 61 scenes from 47 films displaying various forms of addiction. Films about drug-users such as Trainspotting (1996), American Beauty (1999) and Human Traffic (1999) presented...

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The Psychology of Addictive Behaviour

Introduction Addiction refers to a range of behaviours associated with a dependence on something. Tobacco dependence is the most common addiction, although it is a decreasing one in most developing countries. 12% of adults or 30% of 18- 24 year olds take illegal...

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Biological Model of Addictive Behaviour

The biological model emphasises the influence of biochemical and genetic factors on addictive behaviours. The Biological Model suggests people are addicted due to the physical dependence: the chemicals and biological reactions. SMOKING Initiation of a Smoking...

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The Learning Approach

GAMBLING Initiation of a Gambling Addiction Initially, the person may see others winning at gambling. Their expectations may then drive them to place their first bet, e.g. starting with the lottery or a small bet. Once started, the excitement is associated with the...

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Dealing With Stress – Hardiness Training

Focusing – taught to identify signs and sources of stress Reliving and reconstructing – relive stressful encounters and helped to analyse these situations enabling to gain an understanding of stressors and coping strategies Self-improvement – allow them to move...

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Introduction & Social Explanations of Aggression

It is defined as a hostile or destructive tendency or behaviour. There are several possible reasons: Legacy of an evolutionary past Biochemical/ neural causes Learnt behaviour Lack of cognitive SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY This was proposed by Bandura and Walters (1963)...

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Institutional Aggression

THE IMPORTATION MODEL- Interpersonal Factors and Gang Membership Irwin and Cressey (1962) claim that prisoners are not blank slates when they enter prison, they bring in their social histories and personal traits. Allender and Marcell (2003) have found that gang...

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Biological Explanations of Aggression

Neural Mechanisms and Aggression: Research in the 1930’s pointed to the involvement of a circuit of structures in the brain with emotional behaviours, including aggression. Specifically there is a circuit from the areas of the amygdala, down to the hypothalamus and...

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Evolutionary Explanations of Aggression

Aggression in Humans as an Adaptive Behaviour From an evolutionary perspective, the existence of aggression in humans must mean that it has survival value. Despite the apparent contradiction that behaviour which can cause harm could aid survival, research suggests...

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Group Displays of Aggression

Evolutionary Explanations of Group Displays They are based on the idea that we are a social species and that individuals and genes have a better chance of survival when we work as a group. These displays are often ‘threat’ displays that are meant to be intimidating to...

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Explanations of Anorexia Nervosa

Clinical characteristics (DSM-IV-TR) Anxiety: excessive fear and anxious feeling of being fat Weight: it is considered abnormal when it drops below 83% of their normal weight, they may also repeatedly check their weight and obsessively try to control weight by...

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Acute and Chronic Stress

The sympathetic-adrenomedullary system – acute stress Hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system which stimulates the adrenal medulla that releases adrenaline and noradrenaline creating a fight or flight response to the body The...

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Stress and Immunosupression

Cohen Natural experiment were 349pps answered questionnaires and were given stress scores. They were then exposed to a low dose of the common cold virus through a nasal spray. 82% of participants developed a cold and the chances of doing so were seen to be...

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Outline and Evaluate Research Into Institutional Aggression

Institutional aggression refers to aggression within or between groups or institutions. Much of the research on models of institutional aggression has been done in prison environments. The importation model was introduced by IRWIM ET AL which suggests that inmates in...

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Workplace Stress

Too much or too little work, a difficult home-work balance, noise, heat and lack of control all increase stress in the workplace. Johansson Compared 14 finishers to 10 starters in a Swedish saw mill using urine samples to test adrenaline and noradrenaline levels....

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Discuss Hormonal and Neural Mechanisms in Aggression

A lot of research has been conducted into how aggression is affected by the structure of and hormone levels in the brain. Androgens, and in particular testosterone, has been linked with higher levels of aggression in both males and females. NELSON conducted a...

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Life Change Events and Stress

Holmes and Rahe Developed SRRS by taking 43 life events from 5000 patient records before the onset of chronic illness and asked 100 independent judges to rate the events from 1 to 100 with marriage set at 50. LCU’s came from these scores averaged out. Rahe Gave the...

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Daily Hassles and Stress

DeLongis 100pps asked to fill out 4 questionnaires a month for a year asking about daily hassles, uplifts, life events and health. He found that daily hassles positively correlated with ill health, not uplifts or life events. evaluation Retrospective data Use of...

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The Evolutionary Explanation of Aggression

The evolutionary theory states that a human’s main aims are to survive long enough to pass on their genes, and to ensure that those genes live on in their children. If the desire to achieve these goals is not met, or is threatened; humans can become aggressive. Men...

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Personality Types and Stress

Friedman and Rosenhan Type A personality (competitive and outgoing) are more likely to develop CHD than type B (relaxed and expressive 12yr study of 3500 middle aged men, who were interviewed about how they react to certain situations their motivation for success and...

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Outline and Evaluate Group Display in Aggression

Group display refers to displays of aggressive behaviour by groups which are described as three or more people gathered together for a common purpose. By studying animals that display aggression, it is clear that this sort of display is an adaptive response that...

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Hardiness Personality

Kobassa and Maddi Hardy people benefit from stressful situations. They see themselves as being in control of their lives, have good commitment, a strong sense of purpose and see life challenges as problems to overcome, as well as seeing change as an opportunity for...

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Dealing With Stress – Biologicallly

drugs Benzodiazepines Enhance body’s GABA which calms neural activity by allowing more negatively charged ions into our neurons reducing their sensitivity to neurotransmitters. Khan – BZ support 250pps using BZ’s over 8 weeks and found that they were significantly...

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Dealing With Stress – Cognitive

Stress Inoculation Training Form of CBT that is used to identify positive ways to think about a problem. Conceptualisation – identify stressors and their response Skill acquisition and rehearsal – coping skills taught Application and follow through – apply learned...

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Attitudes to Food and Eating Behaviour

Explanations of Attitudes to Food and Eating Behaviour Cultural Influences Ethnicity: Research suggests that body dissatisfaction and related eating disorders are more a characteristic of white women than black or Asian women. (Powell and Khan 1995) Ball and Kenardy...

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Explanations for the Success and Failure of Dieting

Restraint Theory Herman and Mack 1975 Research suggests that as many as 89% of the female population in the UK consciously restrain their food intake at some point in their lives (Klesges et al 1987). The Restraint Theory was developed as an attempt to explain both...

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Neural Mechanisms Involved in Controlling Eating Behaviour

There are many complex theories to explain our biological drive to eat and become satiated. There are two neural mechanisms that are part of the dual centre model of feeding regulation. The role of the lateral hypothalamus and neuropeptide Y (NPY) and the role of the...

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Evolutionary Explanations of Food Preferences

Evidence strongly suggests that we are born with genetic predispositions to basic tastes which influence our food choices. For example, we prefer sweet foods because of the energy/ glucose, salty foods because of the minerals we need, we have adapted to reject bitter...

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Clinical Characteristics of Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is characterised by a profound disruption of cognition and emotion, which affects a person’s language, thought, perception and sense of self. Schneider (1959) identified the first rank symptoms of Schizophrenia. These are now called Type 1 symptoms and...

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Two Biological Explanations of Schizophrenia

There are more than two biological explanations but you only need to know two in great detail. However, acknowledge that others exist (such as viral infections and the neuroanatomical explanation) as you can use them for comparison/evaluation. Neurochemical: The...

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Biological Treatments of Schizophrenia

Antipsychotic Drugs – you need to know this one well! There are two types – traditional antipsychotic drugs and modern antipsychotic drugs. Traditional Antipsychotic Drugs: Based on the medical model – biochemical theory i.e. dopamine hypothesis. The first drugs,...

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Two Psychological Explanations of Schizophrenia

There are more than two psychological explanations but you only need to know two in great detail. However, acknowledge that others exist (such as family relations and the cognitive explanation) as you can use them for comparison/evaluation. Psychodynamic Schizophrenia...

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Psychological Treatments of Schizophrenia

Psychoanalysis This is the psychodynamic treatment for schizophrenia and it was founded by Sigmund Freud. Freud believed that a person could be cured through talking about their unconscious thoughts and motivations (making them conscious thoughts). Psychoanalysis...

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Diagnostic Criteria for Schizophrenia

ICD Diagnosis Symptoms should be present for most of the time lasting for at least one month at some time during most days: (1) At least one of the following must be present: (a) thought echo, thought insertion or withdrawal, or thought broadcasting; (b) Delusions of...

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Classification and Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

Issues of reliability Reliability refers to the consistency of a measuring instrument, such as a questionnaire or scale, to assess, for example the severity of their schizophrenic symptoms. They can be measured in terms of whether two independent assessors give...

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Biological Explanations of Schizophrenia

Genetic factors Family studies They find individuals who have schizophrenia (S) and determine whether their biological relatives are similarly affected more often than non-biological relatives. They have established that S is more common among biological relatives of...

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Psychological Explanations of Schizophrenia

Psychological theories Cognitive Acknowledges the role of biological factors in causing the initial sensory experiences of S, but further features appear as the individual attempts to understand these experiences. When they first experience voices and other worrying...

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Biological Therapies for Schizophrenia

Antipsychotic medication Treat forms of psychotic illness. They help the person with the disorder to function as well as possible in their life and, as well as increasing their feelings of subjective wellbeing. Conventional antipsychotic drugs Reduce the effects of...

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Psychological Therapies for Schizophrenia

Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) The basic assumption is that people often have distorted beliefs which influence their behaviour. Delusions are thought to result from faulty interpretations of events, and cognitive therapy is used to help the patient identify and...

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Describe and Evaluate Selman’s Work on Perspective Talking

AO1 PIAGET: DOMAIN-GENERAL COGNITVE DEVELOPMENT – believed PHYSICAL and SOCIAL PERSEPECTIVE-TAKING would occur HAND-IN-HAND SELMAN: DEVELOPMENT of SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE-TAKING is a SEPARATE PROCESS PERSPECTIVE-TAKING RESEARCH CHANGES that occur with AGE in the CHILDREN’S...

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Describe and Evaluate Research Into Theory of Mind

AO1 the ability that each of us has to ‘MIND-READ’ or to have a PERSONAL THEORY of what other people KNOW or THINKING or FEELING occurs around THREE YRS OLD when they start PRETEND PLAY when one object can be used to SYMBOLISE ANOTHER e.g. horse as a broom INTENTIONAL...

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