Processes of Movement of People


  • The growthin the proportion of people living in urban areas.
  • It usually occurs because of migrationand natural increase.
  • People often migrate to cities for easier access to schoolsand healthcare, and because there are more jobs
  • Many migrants are young adultsif they have children, the population increases further.
  • In developing countries, urbanisation can result in shanty towns that are unplannedand often-illegal settlements made out of any material available.



  • The migration of people from city centres to the outskirtsof cities.
  • As urbanisation increases, city centres become overcrowdedand people desire more space.
  • Improvements to transport linksmeans people can live further away and commute to work.
  • Many people choose to move to the suburbs when they have childrenor
  • A complex patternof wealthy and poorer areas develop.
  • Wealthier middle-class peoplemay move to the suburbs where there is a better quality of life. Those left behind are poorer and may include foreign immigrants. This can lead to economic and ethnic


  • The movement of people out of the cityinto surrounding villages and rural areas.
  • Improvements in transportmeans people can commute to work and better communications allow people to work from home.
  • People leave cities because of high property pricesand  Some people may just prefer quieter rural areas.
  • Counter-urbanisation can lead to new housing estatesbeing built in rural areas. House prices may increase, meaning that some local people can’t afford to live there. It can change the age structure of the area such as average age may increase.



Urban Resurgence

  • The movementof people back to the city centre.
  • People may move back to city centres because of a lack of jobsin rural or suburban areas. People are also attracted by new developments.
  • Urban resurgence is commonin many post-industrial countries, like the UK and USA.
  • New shopsand services may open in the city as people move back, boosting the local economy and creating jobs.
  • However, original residents may not be able to affordto live in the area any more, and maybe force to move to cheaper locations.