Other Schemes for Reducing Traffic

  • In Mexico City, drivers are bannedfrom using their cars one weekday per week, based on the last digit of their number plate. However, some households get around the system by buying two cars.
  • Birmingham, Bristoland London have council-run car sharing schemes to encourage people making the same journey to share a car. However, some people find car sharing inconvenient, or worry about sharing a car with a stranger.



  • Laws aim to reduce pollutionby limiting emissions and setting air quality standards. For example:
  • The UK Clean Air Actsof 1956 and 1968 reduced domestic pollution by introducing smoke control areas where only smokeless fuels could be burned and reduced industrial pollution by introducing the use of tall chimneys.
  • The Road Vehicles Regulationsreduce exhaust emissions by ensuring cars pass an emissions test on their MOT.
  • In Scotland, legislation allows local authorities to do roadside emission tests, where they can issue finesif the vehicle fails. Throughout the UK, local authorities can issue fines to people who leave their engines running unnecessarily.

Alternative Fuels

  • Petrol and dieselare replaced with cleaner fuels that pollute less. For example:
  • Biofuelsare produced from  They can directly replace petrol and diesel and have lower particulate emissions.
  • However, growing the crops needed to make biofuels can reduce biodiversity.
  • Liquefied petroleum gas(LPG) is a gas produced from fossil fuels that has lower emissions than petrol or diesel.
  • However, cars have to be convertedto use LPG, and service stations have to be adapted to distribute it.
  • Electric vehicleshave lower emissions because they run off batteries, rather than conventional fuel. Electric vehicles need recharge points and producing and disposing of the batteries can cause environmental problems.