Modern Urban Areas

Town Centre Mixed Developments

  • These are areas where land useis mixed – luxury flats, offices, shops and entertainment facilities are all located there, so residential, commercial and leisure uses are combined.
  • Developments are plannedby local councils, often with private investment. The aim is to attract people back to city centres by giving them opportunities to live, work and relax there.


Cultural and Heritage Quarters

  • These areas focus on the historyor character of a city.
  • Such areas are often home to theatres, art galleriesand historical buildings.
  • They are often developed by local councilsto regenerate former industrial areas. They attract visitors, encouraging economic development and creating jobs.


Fortress Developments

  • These are developments with lots of security,such as CCTV, guards and high walls. They are often located in suburban areas of large cities, and only those with permission can enter them.
  • They are designed to give a safe environmentfor families, but they are very divisive – only rich people can afford to live in or use them.


Gentrified Areas

  • Gentrification is when wealthier peoplemove into rundown inner-city areas and regenerate them by improving
  • Gentrified areas often have a large range of servicesand contain high-quality housing.
  • However, poorer residentsmay be displaced as the cost of living increases, leading to social and ethnic segregation.


Edge Cities

  • Edge cities are new areas of offices, shopsand leisure facilities that develop close to major transport links where land is
  • They often contain some housing, but most people travelto them for work or to use the services available.
  • The majority of edge cities have developed since the 1950sand 1960s as car ownership has  They are most common in the USA such as Las Colinas near Dallas, Texas.