Bangkok – Case Study

  • Bangkok is in Thailand, an emerging Lack of regulation and poor planning has led to environmental problems:


Air Pollution

  • A rapid rise in car ownership, coupled with poor vehicle maintenance, is causing high levels of air pollution.
  • In 2011, some pollutants were more than three times acceptable levels in some areas.
  • In the early 21st century, air pollution caused around 5,000 premature deathsper year in Bangkok.
  • The government has taken steps to reduce air pollution, including improvements to public transport,such as bus lanes and a new subway.
  • Drivers can be fined if their cars are found to emit high levels of exhaust fumes.


Water Pollution

  • Poor sewage systemsand ineffective waste management means that water pollution is severe.
  • River water contains unsafelevels of ammonia and coliform bacteria, which come mostly from human waste.
  • Since the 1960s, there have been various plans for improvingsewage systems in the city in order to reduce pollution levels in the rivers. However, these plans have been too expensive to implement.



  • A lot of buildings in Bangkok were left half-finishedwhen Asia experienced a fiscal crisis in 1997. Some have since fallen into disrepair and suffered from vandalism and
  • However, economic growthsince 2010 has led to the completion of many unfinished buildings.
  • The government offers incentives for foreign investment, this may help to decrease the number of empty buildings.