Yield and atom economy of chemical reactions (chemistry only)

3.3.1 Percentage yield

Percentage yield

For a Stage 2 reaction the percentage yield was 92.3% The theoretical maximum mass of titanium produced in this batch was 13.5 kg. Calculate the actual mass of titanium produced. (2)

Factors that affect % yield

  • Not all reactant is reacted
  • Some product is lost when separated from reaction mixture
  • Unexpected reaction

3.3.2 Atom economy

Why is it important for percentage of atom economy of a reaction to be as high as possible (2)

  • Important for sustainable development
  • Economic reasons
  • Waste products may be pollutants

Different results – additional product is made e.g. CO2, H2O