• Transcription is where DNA strands are turned into RNA strands for translation to use.
  1. Initiation: RNA polymerase recognizes & attaches to a promoter sequence on the DNA and begins to unzip them into two strands
  • Promoter Sequence: DNA sequence which starts transcription, often TATA box which transcription factors bind to
  • Bacteria: RNA pol binds directly to promoter (w/o TF)
  • Eukaryotes: RNA pol needs transcription factors that guide it and determine where transcription starts and direction
  1. Elongation: occurs as RNA polymerase unzips the DNA and assembles RNA nucleotide using one strand of the DNA as a template
  • Unlike DNA replication: new nucleotides are RNA, uracil not thymine, only one and part of DNA strand is transcribed, and primers are not needed (bcuz RNA pol II can initiate synthesis)
  • Like DNA replication: nucleotides are synthesized in the 5’ to 3’ direction
  1. Termination: occurs when RNA polymerase reaches a special sequence of nucleotides that serve as termination point