• Allows glycolysis to proceed when there is no oxygen → produces organic molecules, including alcohol and lactic acid, as waste products.
  • Goal: To replenish NAD+, so glycolysis can make ATP (w/o oxygen)
  • Uses substrate-level-phosphorylation
    • Makes 2 ATP (less but quicker), 2 pyruvate and 2 NADH
  • Occurs in cytosol NOT in the mitochondria (no oxygen present, no ETC).

Alcohol Fermentation

  • Pyruvate loses 2 carbon dioxide molecules and then reduced by NADH

                Result:  NAD+ regeneration & ATP       Waste: Ethanol and CO2