Free Energy at Nonstandard Conditions

- Enthalpy does not depend on volume or pressure, but entropy does

○ Positional probability:

- A decreasing ΔG means that the favorability of the forward reaction is increasing (reaction shifts right)
- An increasing ΔG means that the favorability of the forward reaction is decreasing (reaction shifts left)

**Equilibrium and Favorability**

Value of ΔG° | +ΔG° | ΔG° = 0 | ΔG° = – |

Value of K | K < 1 | K = 1 | K > 1 |

Value of ΔH° & TΔS° | ΔH° > TΔS° | ΔH° = TΔS° | ΔH° < TΔS° |

- Justify if a reaction is spontaneous: refer to equation and explain if ΔG° will be more negative or more positive

**Free Energy and Work**

- The maximum amount of useful work obtainable from a process at constant temp and pressure equals the change in free energy (energy “free” to do work)