**Electrolysis:**the process of creating an electrolyte cell

○ Used for electroplating

**Electrolyte cell:**runs by running a galvanic cell backwards → the electrons are flowing in the opposite direction

○ In galvanic cells, electron flow is a spontaneous process; in electrolytic cells it is nonspontaneous

- For electrolysis, the total cell potential (E) will be negative → ΔG° = + (Unfavorable process)

○ The E°cell will be the amount of energy supplied

- Which reaction to flip? flip the sign of the reaction that leads to a
**–**E° when both are summed

**Electrolytic Cell (Electrolysis)**

Stoichiometry of Electrolysis

- Shortcut:

○ A = amperes

○ t = time in **seconds**

○ M = atomic mass of the metal

○ F = Faraday’s constant (in Joules)

○ e- = number of electrons in half-reaction

** Faraday’s Law**

(on RFS) → use this equation for electroplating questions

○ I = current required for electroplating

■ More e- in half-reaction (q) and shorter time = requires more current for electroplating

○ Q = (moles of sample)(e- in half reaction)(Faraday’s constant)

○ T = time

**One Faraday**= one mole of electrons “pushed” thru the wire

○ When given Faraday’s → easier to use dimensional analysis