○ Is only used to determine the pH of a buffer system

               ○ Can be molarity, moles or mmols of A- & HA

  • The pH of a buffered solution is determined by the ratio of [A-]/[HA]

               ○ What if the acid and conjugate base are equal in molarity? pH = pKa

  • If you know the Ka for an acid, can solve for the Kb value of its conjugate base

      ○ Use:  

  • If given weak base/conj acid buffer → must use Kb to solve for pKa
  • When you add acid/base to buffer solution → use NmN ICE table