• Temperature: average kinetic energy of a substance

            ○ Reflects random motions of particles

            ○ A change in temperature indicates an energy change                                                                     

  • Heat: involves the transfer of energy between two objects due to a temperature difference

           ○ Heat flows from hot (higher KE) to cold (lower KE)

           ○ When two objects at different temperatures are in contact, they will eventually reach the same intermediate temperature/thermal equilibrium:

particles will have the same avg KE & speed/velocity

          ■ Energy will be transferred from the more energetic particles to the less energetic

  • Decrease temperature = decrease avg KE of particles = decrease avg speed/velocity of particles