• Spontaneous reactions: reactions that will happen but we cant tell when or how fast 
  •  Kinetics: the study of the rates of a chemical reaction
  • Can determine the coefficients of the chemical equation when given graph of concentration vs time by doing: 

           ○ The rate of disappearance of A is equal to the rate of appearance of B and ½ the rate of appearance of C

           ○ To determine which reactant will be consumed quicker → look at balanced equation

Factors that Affect Reaction Rates

  • According to the collision theory, the rate of a reaction is influenced by anything that affects the number or force of collisions

          ○ Increase collisions = increase rate

  • Reactant concentration

          ○ Increasing concentration causes an increase in the frequency of collisions which increases reaction rates (except for zero-order reactions)

  • Increasing temperature: increasing the temp increases the frequency of collisions and the avg KE of the reactants, so more will meet the minimum Ea and collide to form products

         ○ Increase temperature = increases number of successful collisions

  • Pressure: For reactions involving gases, increasing pressure increases the collisions between reactants,
  • Particle size and increasing surface area

         ○ The smaller the particle size with more sides = the larger the surface area

         ○ Increase surface area (ex: stirring, grinding) → more collisions

  • Catalysts: A catalyst will change the value of K because the activation energy changes

         ○ The value of the rate constant is also dependent on the activation energy

  • Inhibitor: a substance that decreases the rate of a reaction by increasing Ea