• A representation of a chemical reaction→ must be balanced!

        ○ On AP exam, if coefficients are given can assume that the equation is balanced

  • Balanced Formula/molecular equation: show all species participating in reaction

         ○ These equations indicate that mass is conserved


  •  Complete ionic equation: strong electrolytes are ions

         ○ Remember: all ionic compounds (salts) and strong acids/bases are strong electrolytes


           ○ Keep liquids (H2O (l)), solids, and gases together

  •  Net ionic equation: Spectator ions are not included

           ○ Used to represent only the substance undergoing a chemical change

  • Spectator ions: ions that do not participate directly in the reaction; are on both sides

        ○ Ions that participate react to form a solid

  • A dissolution equation will show show a solid substance forming aqueous ions

        ○ Ex:   (AB → A + B)