• Filtration can be used to separate the insoluble components of a heterogeneous mixture based on differences in particle size but NOT the components of two miscible liquids                                                                                                       


  • All methods include a system with two phases: a mobile phase (the solution) and a stationary phase (usually the paper)
  • The substance being analyzed will have a certain amount of attraction to the stationary and mobile phase bcuz of differences in polarity

         ○ If substance is more attracted to mobile phase than paper → it will travel more

         ○ If it is more attracted to stationary phase rather than mobile phase → it will travel less

Different Types of Chromatography

  • Chromatography column: Better for separating and collecting the components of a mixture
  • Thin-layer chromatography: Better for identifying components of a mixture


  • Difference in InterMFs and thus boiling points between two liquids allow them to be separated by distillation         

          ○ In the vapor above a heated mixture of the two liquids, the compound with the lower BP would dominate → once the vapor cools, the liquid with the lower BP can be collected